• Support cardiovascular function
        • Supports brain function
        • Supports antioxidant defenses
        • Supports cellular signaling
        • Supports bone health
        • Supports metabolism
        • Supports exercise performance
        • Supports ATP production


Various structurally related fat-soluble molecules (vitamers) contribute to the action of a carboxylase enzyme. Vitamin K is a collective term for a group of these molecules (vitamers).


Proteins that contain glutamate are converted to carboxyglutamate residues by this enzyme, which is vital for blood clotting and bone health.


Vegetables are the sole source of dietary vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), whereas animals and bacterial organisms (such as cheese) are the sole sources of dietary vitamin K2 (menaquinone).


Gut bacteria can also produce vitamin K2 from vitamin K1.


Vitamin K2 consists of nine related compounds - MK-1, MK-2, ...MK-9. Menaquinone is represented by the letter M, Vitamin K by the letter K, and the number n by the number of isoprenoid side chains.


Vitamin K2 is generally the best form of the vitamin for supporting bone and vascular health.


Mitochondrial structure and function


  • Supports electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP production)[1–12]
  • Mitochondrial electron carrier - alternative electron acceptor/donor (complex I-III bypass)[1–3]
  • Protects from complex I-V inhibition[4–9]
  • Supplies complex III cofactors/substrates[10–12]
  • Protects from mitochondrial dysfunction[3,4,3]
  • Supports mitochondrial morphology [14]
  • Upregulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling 24




  • Supports healthy insulin sensitivity[15–19]
  • Upregulates adiponectin levels 18,24[18]
  • Upregulates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1)[18]


Exercise performance (ergogenic effect)


  • Supports endurance performance[20]
  • Protects from muscle cramps[21]
  • Supports post-exercise recovery[1,2]


Skeletal system


  • Promotes the formation of bone[22,23]


Cardiovascular function


  • Regulates blood coagulation[22,23]
  • Protects from vascular calcification and arterial stiffening[22,23]
  • Supports cardiac output (during exercise)[20]
  • Protects cardiac cells from hypoxia[4]


Cellular signaling


  • Downregulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators – nuclear factor (NF-κB), glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)[13,24,25]


Antioxidant defenses


  • Downregulates the generation of reactive oxygen species[8,13,26]


Brain function


  • Protects neurons from neurotoxic agents and oxidative damage[8,26]


Gut microbiota


  • Supports the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the gut microbiota[24]


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[3] M. Vos et al., Science. 336, 1306–1310 (2012).
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[13] Y.-X. Yu et al., Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 37, 1178–1189 (2016).
[14] L. M. Baldoceda-Baldeon, D. Gagné, C. Vigneault, P. Blondin, C. Robert, Reproduction. 148, 489–497 (2014).
[15] H. J. Choi et al., Diabetes Care. 34, e147 (2011).
[16] M. Yoshida et al., Diabetes Care. 31, 2092–2096 (2008).
[17] N. Sakamoto, T. Nishiike, H. Iguchi, K. Sakamoto, Clin. Nutr. 19, 259–263 (2000).
[18] A. G. Hussein, R. H. Mohamed, S. M. Shalaby, D. M. Abd El Motteleb, Nutrition. 47, 33–38 (2018).
[19] Y. Li, J. P. Chen, L. Duan, S. Li, Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 136, 39–51 (2018).
[20] B. K. McFarlin, A. L. Henning, A. S. Venable, Altern. Ther. Health Med. 23, 26–32 (2017).
[21] D. S. Mehta et al., The Indian Practitioner. 63, 287–291 (2010).
[22] T. Krueger, R. Westenfeld, L. Schurgers, V. Brandenburg, Int. J. Artif. Organs. 32, 67–74 (2009).
[23] J. W. J. Beulens et al., Br. J. Nutr. 110, 1357–1368 (2013).
[24] Y. Zhang et al., Oncotarget. 8, 24719–24727 (2017).
[25] H. Zhang et al., Oncol. Rep. 25, 159–166 (2011).
[26] J. Li et al., J. Neurosci. 23, 5816–5826 (2003).


*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.