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VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE) BENEFITS

KEY BENEFITS OF THIAMINE

        • Supports metabolic health
        • Supports cognitive function
        • Supports energy metabolism

ABOUT THIAMINE

A member of the B complex, Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for the metabolism and energy production of cells.

 

Vitamin B1 was the first to be isolated from the B complex, hence its name.

A key role of thiamine in preventing thiamine deficiency disorders places it on the WHO's list of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe compounds in a health system.

 

Thiamine is concentrated in metabolically active tissues such as muscle, heart, brain, liver, and kidney. There is a limited amount of thiamine that the body can store (about 20-30 mg), so it must be consumed consistently in the diet.

 

Many cellular processes are influenced by thiamine. Sugars, proteins, and fats are all broken down by this enzyme, and it is vital to several important processes that make cellular energy.


THIAMINE FULL BENEFITS

Energy metabolism

 

  • Supports energy generation (ATP) from carbohydrate and sugar metabolism[2]

 

Cofactor in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

  • Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is required as a cofactor in the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex[2]
  • TPP is essential for the generation by the PDH complex of acetyl-CoA, used in the citric acid cycle to generate ATP[2]
  • TPP is essential for the generation by the PDH complex of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), required for the production of ATP[2]
  • Cofactor in the citric acid cycle[2]
  • TPP is required as a cofactor in the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction of the citric acid cycle (conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA)[2]
  • TPP is essential in propagating the citric acid cycle to generate ATP[2]

 

Cofactor in the pentose phosphate pathway

 

  • TPP is required as a cofactor in the transketolase reaction of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)[2]
  • The PPP provides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), used in several biochemical pathways such as in steroid, fatty acid, amino acid, neurotransmitter, and glutathione synthesis[2]
  • The PPP provides ribose-5-phosphate, an essential building block in nucleic acids[2]
  • Ribose-5-phosphate can enter the non-oxidative phase of the PPP where transketolase and TPP help transform ribose-5-phosphate back into glycolysis intermediates (such as glucose-6-phosphate)[2]

 

Antioxidant defenses

 

  • Participates in the synthesis of NADPH to be used in the recycling of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH)[2]

 

Brain function

 

  • Essential for the production by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of acetyl-CoA used for the production of acetylcholine[2]
  • The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction of the citric acid cycle reaction has a role in maintaining glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels[2]

 

Other mechanisms

 

  • May help counter the production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)[3,4]
  • Supports healthy blood pressure[5]
  • Supports healthy blood glucose levels[6]
  • Supports healthy insulin sensitivity[6]

VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE) CAN BE FOUND IN:

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REFERENCES

[1] H.A. Smithline, M. Donnino, D.J. Greenblatt, BMC Clin. Pharmacol. 12 (2012) 4.
[2] D. A. Bender, in Nutritional Biochemistry of the Vitamins (Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 148–171.
[3] S. Kousar, M. A. Sheikh, M. Asghar, J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 62, 1033–1038 (2012).
[4] N. Karachalias, R. Babaei-Jadidi, C. Kupich, N. Ahmed, P. J. Thornalley, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1043, 777–783 (2005).
[5] F. Alaei-Shahmiri, M. J. Soares, Y. Zhao, J. Sherriff, Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 9, 213–217 (2015).
[6] F. Alaei Shahmiri, M. J. Soares, Y. Zhao, J. Sherriff, Eur. J. Nutr. 52, 1821–1824 (2013).