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THEOBROMINE benefits

KEY BENEFITS OF THEOBROMINE

        • Supports neuroprotection
        • Supports brain function and cognitive performance

ABOUT THEOBROMINE

Theobromine is a bitter compound found in high concentrations in cocoa beans (and, therefore, chocolate) and in much lower concentrations in tea, yerba mate, guarana and guayusa.

 

The name is derived from the botanical name for cocoa beans, Theobroma cacao.

Cocoa powders contain between 2 and 10% theobromine, a difference of about fivefold. Theobromine is generally more abundant in dark chocolate than in milk chocolate.

 

In the same family of alkaloid molecules as caffeine, theobromine is classified as a methylxanthine. The adenosine neurotransmitter system acts similarly to caffeine in helping to promote alertness.

 

Although theobromine provides energy and alertness, it does so at a slower rate and lasts longer than caffeine [1–4].

 

Similar to caffeine, it affects brain processes similarly but not quite as strongly.  


THEOBROMINE FULL BENEFITS

Brain and cognitive function

 

  • Supports memory and learning [6–8]
  • Supports cognitive health [7]
  • Influences adenosine receptor activity [2,3,9]
  • Supports dopamine levels [10]
  • Supports noradrenaline levels [10]
  • Supports brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [6,8]
  • Supports antioxidant defenses [10]

 

Cellular function

 

  • Influences phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and intracellular cAMP levels [6,9]
  • Influences mTOR signaling [11]

 

Complementary ingredients

 

  • Caffeine in supporting energetic arousal, reaction time and information processing [12]

THEOBROMINE CAN BE FOUND IN:

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REFERENCES

[1]B. Gottwalt, P. Tadi, in: StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL), 2020.

[2]H.J. Smit, Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. (2011) 201–234.

[3]R. Franco, A. Oñatibia-Astibia, E. Martínez-Pinilla, Nutrients 5 (2013) 4159–4173.

[4]E. Martínez-Pinilla, A. Oñatibia-Astibia, R. Franco, Front. Pharmacol. 6 (2015) 30.

[5]M.J. Baggott, E. Childs, A.B. Hart, E. de Bruin, A.A. Palmer, J.E. Wilkinson, H. de Wit, Psychopharmacology 228 (2013) 109–118.

[6]M. Yoneda, N. Sugimoto, M. Katakura, K. Matsuzaki, H. Tanigami, A. Yachie, T. Ohno-Shosaku, O. Shido, J. Nutr. Biochem. 39 (2017) 110–116.

[7]J. Mendiola-Precoma, K. Padilla, A. Rodríguez-Cruz, L.C. Berumen, R. Miledi, G. García-Alcocer, J. Alzheimers. Dis. 55 (2017) 1273–1283.

[8]R. Islam, K. Matsuzaki, E. Sumiyoshi, M.E. Hossain, M. Hashimoto, M. Katakura, N. Sugimoto, O. Shido, Nutrients 11 (2019).

[9]I. Cova, V. Leta, C. Mariani, L. Pantoni, S. Pomati, Psychopharmacology 236 (2019) 561–572.

[10]L. Fernández-Fernández, G. Esteban, M. Giralt, T. Valente, I. Bolea, M. Solé, P. Sun, S. Benítez, J.R. Morelló, J. Reguant, B. Ramírez, J. Hidalgo, M. Unzeta, Food Funct. 6 (2015) 1251–1260.

[11]N. Sugimoto, M. Katakura, K. Matsuzaki, E. Sumiyoshi, A. Yachie, O. Shido, Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 124 (2019) 575–581.

[12]H.J. Smit, E.A. Gaffan, P.J. Rogers, Psychopharmacology 176 (2004) 412–419.