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NIACIN (VITAMIN B3) BENEFITS

KEY BENEFITS OF NIACIN

      • Supports neuroprotection
      • Supports healthy aging and longevity
      • Supports cardiovascular function
      • Supports energy metabolism
      • Supports antioxidant defenses

ABOUT NIACIN (VITAMIN B3)

Vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid) is an essential water-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in cellular metabolism and energy production.
 
Because it was discovered third among the B complex vitamins, it is called B3. Vitamin B3 in its "flushing" form is often referred to as niacin. Most people experience unpleasant flushing at high doses; the likelihood of flushing increases with dosage. Flushing is rare at doses closer to the daily value.
 
Niacin-active compounds contribute to a molecule called NAD, which is an important molecule. Cellular repair, signaling, and defense are all dependent on the NAD molecule. NAD is produced by Nicotinic acid via the Preises-Handler pathway. Upon formation, NAD is a redox molecule.
 
In order to perform reactions involved in cellular and mitochondrial energy production and antioxidant defenses, the molecule converts between two forms NAD+ and NADH (or the same molecule with a phosphate written as NADP and NADPH).
 
It is also involved in several cellular signaling pathways involved in DNA repair and adaptation to cellular stress in the NAD+ configuration.
 
It is well known that NAD+ levels decline with age and that increasing NAD+ levels in the body can support healthy aging and provide protection.

NIACIN FULL BENEFITS

Precursor of NADH/NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

 

    • Supports breakdown of sugars and fats for energy[1]
    • Supports mitochondrial production of ATP[1]
    • NADH is part of complex I NADH/coenzyme Q reductase) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain[2]

 

Precursor of NADPH/NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)

 

  • NADPH is a key cofactor for cytochrome P450 enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics[3]
  • NADPH is a cofactor for glutathione reductase, which maintains the levels of reduced glutathione - confers protection against oxidative stress and is part of antioxidant defenses[4]

 

Healthy aging and longevity

 

  • Influences lifespan, senescence, cell proliferation, apoptosis [1]

  • Enhances remyelination of the aging central nervous system [5]

  • NAD+ is a substrate for sirtuins (SIRT1 to SIRT7), which promote healthspan [6]

  • NAD+ is a substrate for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is involved in DNA repair and essential for genome stability  [6,7]

  • NAD+ supports mitochondrial function [8,9]

  • NAD+ supports stem cell function [9]

  • NAD+ extends lifespan (Caenorhabditis elegans and mice) [10,11]

 

Neuroprotection

 

  • Protects neuronal cells against ischemia and oxidative stress[9,10]

 

Cardiovascular function

 

  • Supports healthy blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels[12–17]
  • Protects vascular function[14–18]

NIACIN (VITAMIN B3) CAN BE FOUND IN:

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REFERENCES

[1] A. A. Sauve, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 324, 883–893 (2008).
[2] N. Pollak, C. Dölle, M. Ziegler, Biochem. J. 402, 205–218 (2007).
[3] A. V. Pandey, C. E. Flück, Pharmacol. Ther. 138, 229–254 (2013).
[4] G. Filomeni, G. Rotilio, M. R. Ciriolo, Biochem. Pharmacol. 64, 1057–1064 (2002).
[5] A. R. Mendelsohn, J. W. Larrick, Rejuvenation Res. 20, 244–247 (2017).
[6] J. B. Kirkland, Nutr. Cancer. 46, 110–118 (2003).
[7] L. Mouchiroud et al., Cell. 154, 430–441 (2013).
[8] H. Zhang et al., Science. 352, 1436–1443 (2016).
[9] J. Chen et al., Ann. Neurol. 62, 49–58 (2007).
[10] A. Shehadah et al., Neurobiol. Dis. 40, 277–283 (2010).
[11] L.-H. Zhang, V. S. Kamanna, S. H. Ganji, X.-M. Xiong, M. L. Kashyap, J. Lipid Res. 53, 941–950 (2012).
[12] J. W. A. van der Hoorn et al., Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 28, 2016–2022 (2008).
[13] Y. Si et al., Mediators Inflamm. 2014, 263786 (2014).
[14] E. Fabbrini et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95, 2727–2735 (2010).
[15] F. Y. Jin, V. S. Kamanna, M. L. Kashyap, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 19, 1051–1059 (1999).
[16] M. Hernandez, S. D. Wright, T.-Q. Cai, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 355, 1075–1080 (2007).
[17] P. S. Lipszyc et al., Open Cardiovasc. Med. J. 7, 90–98 (2013).
[18] P.S. Lipszyc, G.A. Cremaschi, M. Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.L.A. Bertolino, F. Capani, A.M. Genaro, M.R. Wald, Open Cardiovasc. Med. J. 7 (2013) 90–98.