• Supports neuroprotection
      • Supports healthy aging and longevity
      • Supports cardiovascular function
      • Supports energy metabolism
      • Supports antioxidant defenses


Vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid) is an essential water-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in cellular metabolism and energy production.
Because it was discovered third among the B complex vitamins, it is called B3. Vitamin B3 in its "flushing" form is often referred to as niacin. Most people experience unpleasant flushing at high doses; the likelihood of flushing increases with dosage. Flushing is rare at doses closer to the daily value.
Niacin-active compounds contribute to a molecule called NAD, which is an important molecule. Cellular repair, signaling, and defense are all dependent on the NAD molecule. NAD is produced by Nicotinic acid via the Preises-Handler pathway. Upon formation, NAD is a redox molecule.
In order to perform reactions involved in cellular and mitochondrial energy production and antioxidant defenses, the molecule converts between two forms NAD+ and NADH (or the same molecule with a phosphate written as NADP and NADPH).
It is also involved in several cellular signaling pathways involved in DNA repair and adaptation to cellular stress in the NAD+ configuration.
It is well known that NAD+ levels decline with age and that increasing NAD+ levels in the body can support healthy aging and provide protection.


Precursor of NADH/NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)


    • Supports breakdown of sugars and fats for energy[1]
    • Supports mitochondrial production of ATP[1]
    • NADH is part of complex I NADH/coenzyme Q reductase) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain[2]


Precursor of NADPH/NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)


  • NADPH is a key cofactor for cytochrome P450 enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics[3]
  • NADPH is a cofactor for glutathione reductase, which maintains the levels of reduced glutathione - confers protection against oxidative stress and is part of antioxidant defenses[4]


Healthy aging and longevity


  • Influences lifespan, senescence, cell proliferation, apoptosis [1]

  • Enhances remyelination of the aging central nervous system [5]

  • NAD+ is a substrate for sirtuins (SIRT1 to SIRT7), which promote healthspan [6]

  • NAD+ is a substrate for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is involved in DNA repair and essential for genome stability  [6,7]

  • NAD+ supports mitochondrial function [8,9]

  • NAD+ supports stem cell function [9]

  • NAD+ extends lifespan (Caenorhabditis elegans and mice) [10,11]




  • Protects neuronal cells against ischemia and oxidative stress[9,10]


Cardiovascular function


  • Supports healthy blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels[12–17]
  • Protects vascular function[14–18]


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