GET 15% OFF WHEN YOU START A RECURRING ORDER! USE CODE "START" IN CHECKOUT. CANCEL ANYTIME!

N-ACETYL-L-CYSTEINE BENEFITS

KEY BENEFITS OF N-ACETYLCYSTEINE

      • Supports healthy immune function
      • Supports healthy gut microbiota
      • Supports liver detoxification
      • Supports the production of glutathione

ABOUT N-ACETYLCYSTEINE

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an amino acid containing sulfur, is the acetylated form of L-cysteine. Cysteine is less bioavailable than acetylated cysteine.

 

The NAC increases body stores of L-cysteine, a molecule that is used in the production of glutathione, detoxification, and antioxidant molecule[1]. NAC's main mechanism of action[2] is its ability to support glutathione production. The availability of L-cysteine is thought to limit glutathione production (it is thought to be a rate-limiting[3] factor).

 

If the body is supplied with NAC, it can replenish glutathione levels in tissues throughout the body (including the brain, liver, and muscles) when the demand for glutathione has increased or when it is lowered (such as with older age or increased exposure to toxins). As both NAC and glycine are used in glutathione production, their combination makes sense[4,5].

 

This antioxidant promotes glutathione-related defenses, which lower the risk of free radical damage, metal, and toxic damage, as well as aging-related oxidative stress.


N-ACETYLCYSTEINE FULL BENEFITS

Antioxidant defenses

 

  • Supports glutathione levels in the plasma[6]
  • Supports glutathione levels in red blood cells[7]
  • Crosses the blood brain barrier and supports glutathione levels in the brain[6,8,9]

 

Mitochondrial function

 

    • Supports mitochondrial function[10]
    • Supports mitochondrial biogenesis[11]
    • Supports mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy)[12]

 

Brain function

 

  • Supports neuroprotection (secondary to boosting glutathione and antioxidant defenses)[13–15]
  • Supports the auditory system from fatigue and noise-induced hearing loss[16–19]

 

Immunity

 

  • Supports general immune health[20–22]
  • Supports innate immunity[21–31]
  • Supports adaptive immunity[20,22,27,32]
  • Supports mucosal immunity[33,34]
  • Supports immune tolerance[35–39]
  • Supports cellular intrinsic immune defenses[40–48]  
  • Supports immune signaling[22,23,44,49–51]
  • Supports antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress[22,25,27,52]
  • Supports leukocyte glutathione (GSH) levels[22,25,52]
  • Supports healthy natural killer cell function[21,22,30,31,53–55]
  • Supports healthy macrophage function[24,25,27,56]
  • Supports healthy neutrophil function[22,26,28,57,58]  
  • Supports healthy T cell function[50,59–62]   

 

Gastrointestinal function and gut microbiota

 

  • Supports gut microbiota[49,63–65]
  • Supports gut barrier function[34,63]
  • Supports gut antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress[63–65]
  • Supports gut immune signaling[34,66]

 

Complementary ingredients

 

  • L-Theanine in support of general immune health[67–73]
  • Sulforaphane in support of cellular antioxidant defenses[74–76]
  • Glycine in support of glutathione synthesis[5,77,78]

N-ACETYL-L-CYSTEINE CAN BE FOUND IN:

Morning Momentum

Get Instant Access To A Simple, Proven System That Has Helped

THOUSANDS of People

IGNITE Their Health and Energy

to Create The Life They Deserve!

Learn More


REFERENCES

[1] G. Wu, Y.-Z. Fang, S. Yang, J.R. Lupton, N.D. Turner, J. Nutr. 134 (2004) 489–492.
[2] K.R. Atkuri, J.J. Mantovani, L.A. Herzenberg, L.A. Herzenberg, Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 7 (2007) 355–359.
[3] S.C. Lu, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830 (2013) 3143–3153.
[4] S. Xie, W. Zhou, L. Tian, J. Niu, Y. Liu, Fish Shellfish Immunol. 55 (2016) 233–241.
[5] K.A. Cieslik, R.V. Sekhar, A. Granillo, A. Reddy, G. Medrano, C.P. Heredia, M.L. Entman, D.J. Hamilton, S. Li, E. Reineke, A.A. Gupte, A. Zhang, G.E. Taffet, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 73 (2018) 1167–1177.
[6] M.J. Holmay, M. Terpstra, L.D. Coles, U. Mishra, M. Ahlskog, G. Öz, J.C. Cloyd, P.J. Tuite, Clin. Neuropharmacol. 36 (2013) 103–106.
[7] S. Kasperczyk, M. Dobrakowski, A. Kasperczyk, A. Ostałowska, E. Birkner, Clin. Toxicol. 51 (2013) 480–486.
[8] S.A. Farr, H.F. Poon, D. Dogrukol-Ak, J. Drake, W.A. Banks, E. Eyerman, D.A. Butterfield, J.E. Morley, J. Neurochem. 84 (2003) 1173–1183.
[9] O.M. Dean, M. van den Buuse, M. Berk, D.L. Copolov, C. Mavros, A.I. Bush, Neurosci. Lett. 499 (2011) 149–153.
[10] O.E. Aparicio-Trejo, L.M. Reyes-Fermín, A. Briones-Herrera, E. Tapia, J.C. León-Contreras, R. Hernández-Pando, L.G. Sánchez-Lozada, J. Pedraza-Chaverri, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 130 (2018) 379–396.
[11] W.-C. Lee, L.-C. Li, J.-B. Chen, H.-W. Chang, ScientificWorldJournal 2015 (2015) 620826.
[12] V.S. Van Laar, N. Roy, A. Liu, S. Rajprohat, B. Arnold, A.A. Dukes, C.D. Holbein, S.B. Berman, Neurobiol. Dis. 74 (2015) 180–193.
[13] M. Günther, J. Davidsson, S. Plantman, S. Norgren, T. Mathiesen, M. Risling, J. Clin. Neurosci. 22 (2015) 1477–1483.
[14] E. Olakowska, W. Marcol, A. Właszczuk, I. Woszczycka-Korczyńska, J. Lewin-Kowalik, Adv. Clin. Exp. Med. 26 (2017) 1329–1334.
[15] W.A. Keshk, M.A. Ibrahim, S.M. Shalaby, Z.A. Zalat, W.S. Elseady, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 680 (2020) 108227.
[16] C.-Y. Lin, J.-L. Wu, T.-S. Shih, P.-J. Tsai, Y.-M. Sun, M.-C. Ma, Y.L. Guo, Hear. Res. 269 (2010) 42–47.
[17] A.-C. Lindblad, U. Rosenhall, A. Olofsson, B. Hagerman, Noise Health 13 (2011) 392–401.
[18] M.E. Hoffer, C. Balaban, M.D. Slade, J.W. Tsao, B. Hoffer, PLoS One 8 (2013) e54163.
[19] R. Kopke, M.D. Slade, R. Jackson, T. Hammill, S. Fausti, B. Lonsbury-Martin, A. Sanderson, L. Dreisbach, P. Rabinowitz, P. Torre 3rd, B. Balough, Hear. Res. 323 (2015) 40–50.
[20] S. De Flora, C. Grassi, L. Carati, Eur. Respir. J. 10 (1997) 1535–1541.
[21] R. Breitkreutz, N. Pittack, C.T. Nebe, D. Schuster, J. Brust, M. Beichert, V. Hack, V. Daniel, L. Edler, W. Dröge, J. Mol. Med. 78 (2000) 55–62.
[22] L. Arranz, C. Fernández, A. Rodríguez, J.M. Ribera, M. De la Fuente, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 45 (2008) 1252–1262.
[23] A.M. Sadowska, B. Manuel-y-Keenoy, T. Vertongen, G. Schippers, D. Radomska-Lesniewska, E. Heytens, W.A. De Backer, Pharmacol. Res. 53 (2006) 216–225.
[24] M. Linden, E. Wieslander, A. Eklund, K. Larsson, R. Brattsand, Eur. Respir. J. 1 (1988) 645–650.
[25] D. Morris, C. Guerra, M. Khurasany, F. Guilford, B. Saviola, Y. Huang, V. Venketaraman, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 33 (2013) 270–279.
[26] A.R. Heller, G. Groth, S.C. Heller, R. Breitkreutz, T. Nebe, M. Quintel, T. Koch, Crit. Care Med. 29 (2001) 272–276.
[27] M. Puerto, N. Guayerbas, V. Víctor, M. De la Fuente, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 73 (2002) 797–804.
[28] L. Ohman, C. Dahlgren, P. Follin, D. Lew, O. Stendahl, Agents Actions 36 (1992) 271–277.
[29] V.M. Víctor, M. Rocha, M. De la Fuente, Int. Immunopharmacol. 3 (2003) 97–106.
[30] S. Kojima, H. Ishida, M. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, Radiat. Res. 157 (2002) 275–280.
[31] M. Viora, M.G. Quaranta, E. Straface, R. Vari, R. Masella, W. Malorni, Immunology 104 (2001) 431–438.
[32]C. Spada, A. Treitinger, M. Reis, I.Y. Masokawa, J.C. Verdi, M.C. Luiz, M.V.S. Silveira, C.M. Michelon, S. Avila-Junior, L.D.O. Gil, S. Ostrowskyl, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 40 (2002) 452–455.
[33] O.V. Kalyuzhin, Ter. Arkh. 90 (2018) 89–95.
[34] S.I. Lee, K.S. Kang, Sci. Rep. 9 (2019) 1004.
[35] J.M. Oldham, L.J. Witt, A. Adegunsoye, J.H. Chung, C. Lee, S. Hsu, L.W. Chen, A. Husain, S. Montner, R. Vij, M.E. Strek, I. Noth, BMC Pulm. Med. 18 (2018) 30.
[36] S. Pathak, C. Stern, A. Vambutas, Immunol. Res. 63 (2015) 236–245.
[37] K. Shimada, H. Uzui, T. Ueda, J.-D. Lee, C. Kishimoto, J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Ther. 20 (2015) 203–210.
[38] G. Wang, J. Wang, H. Ma, G.A.S. Ansari, M.F. Khan, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 273 (2013) 189–195.
[39] D. Lehmann, D. Karussis, R. Misrachi-Koll, E. Shezen, H. Ovadia, O. Abramsky, J. Neuroimmunol. 50 (1994) 35–42.
[40] A. Andreou, S. Trantza, D. Filippou, N. Sipsas, S. Tsiodras, In Vivo 34 (2020) 1567–1588.
[41] G.P. Sreekanth, J. Panaampon, A. Suttitheptumrong, A. Chuncharunee, J. Bootkunha, P.-T. Yenchitsomanus, T. Limjindaporn, Antiviral Res. 166 (2019) 42–55.
[42] X. Gao, E.-M. Lampraki, S. Al-Khalidi, M.A. Qureshi, R. Desai, J.B. Wilson, PLoS One 12 (2017) e0189167.
[43] M. Mata, I. Sarrion, M. Armengot, C. Carda, I. Martinez, J.A. Melero, J. Cortijo, PLoS One 7 (2012) e48037.
[44] M. Mata, E. Morcillo, C. Gimeno, J. Cortijo, Biochem. Pharmacol. 82 (2011) 548–555.
[45] P. Ghezzi, D. Ungheri, Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 17 (2004) 99–102.
[46] M.-M.O. Garigliany, D.J. Desmecht, J. Negat. Results Biomed. 10 (2011) 5.
[47] A. Garozzo, G. Tempera, D. Ungheri, R. Timpanaro, A. Castro, Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 20 (2007) 349–354.
[48] D. Ungheri, C. Pisani, G. Sanson, A. Bertani, G. Schioppacassi, R. Delgado, M. Sironi, P. Ghezzi, Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 13 (2000) 123–128.
[49] Z. Luo, X. Xu, T. Sho, W. Luo, J. Zhang, W. Xu, J. Yao, J. Xu, J. Anim. Sci. 97 (2019) 1757–1771.
[50] Y. Delneste, P. Jeannin, L. Potier, P. Romero, J.Y. Bonnefoy, Blood 90 (1997) 1124–1132.
[51] G.V. Guibas, E. Spandou, S. Meditskou, T.A. Vyzantiadis, K.N. Priftis, G. Anogianakis, Int. Forum Allergy Rhinol. 3 (2013) 543–549.
[52] A.M. Gamage, K.O. Lee, Y.-H. Gan, Microbes Infect. 16 (2014) 661–671.
[53] N. Guayerbas, M. Puerto, M.D. Ferrández, M. De La Fuente, Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 29 (2002) 1009–1014.
[54] M. De La Fuente, J. Miquel, M.P. Catalán, V.M. Víctor, N. Guayerbas, Free Radic. Res. 36 (2002) 119–126.
[55] W. Malorni, A. D’Ambrosio, G. Rainaldi, R. Rivabene, M. Viora, Immunol. Lett. 43 (1994) 209–214.
[56] N. Guayerbas, M. Puerto, P. Alvarez, M. de la Fuente, Cell. Mol. Biol. 50 Online Pub (2004) OL677–81.
[57] C. Gaykwad, J. Garkhal, G.E. Chethan, S. Nandi, U.K. De, J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 41 (2018) 68–75.
[58] R.-H. Zhang, C.-H. Li, C.-L. Wang, M.-J. Xu, T. Xu, D. Wei, B.-J. Liu, G.-H. Wang, S.-F. Tian, Int. Immunopharmacol. 22 (2014) 1–8.
[59] K. Pilipow, E. Scamardella, S. Puccio, S. Gautam, F. De Paoli, E.M. Mazza, G. De Simone, S. Polletti, M. Buccilli, V. Zanon, P. Di Lucia, M. Iannacone, L. Gattinoni, E. Lugli, JCI Insight 3 (2018).
[60] M.J. Scheffel, G. Scurti, P. Simms, E. Garrett-Mayer, S. Mehrotra, M.I. Nishimura, C. Voelkel-Johnson, Cancer Res. 76 (2016) 6006–6016.
[61] M.J. Scheffel, G. Scurti, M.M. Wyatt, E. Garrett-Mayer, C.M. Paulos, M.I. Nishimura, C. Voelkel-Johnson, Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 67 (2018) 691–702.
[62] K. Schlie, A. Westerback, L. DeVorkin, L.R. Hughson, J.M. Brandon, S. MacPherson, I. Gadawski, K.N. Townsend, V.I. Poon, M.A. Elrick, H.C.F. Côté, N. Abraham, E.J. Wherry, N. Mizushima, J.J. Lum, J. Immunol. 194 (2015) 4277–4286.
[63] J. Zheng, X. Yuan, C. Zhang, P. Jia, S. Jiao, X. Zhao, H. Yin, Y. Du, H. Liu, J. Diabetes (2018).
[64] C.C. Xu, S.F. Yang, L.H. Zhu, X. Cai, Y.S. Sheng, S.W. Zhu, J.X. Xu, J. Anim. Sci. 92 (2014) 1504–1511.
[65] C. Wan, R. Xue, Y. Zhan, Y. Wu, X. Li, F. Pei, OMICS 21 (2017) 540–549.
[66] D. Yi, Y. Hou, H. Xiao, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Chen, T. Wu, B. Ding, C.-A.A. Hu, G. Wu, Amino Acids 49 (2017) 1915–1929.
[67] K. Miyagawa, Y. Hayashi, S. Kurihara, A. Maeda, Geriatr. Gerontol. Int. 8 (2008) 243–250.
[68] S. Kawada, K. Kobayashi, M. Ohtani, C. Fukusaki, J. Strength Cond. Res. 24 (2010) 846–851.
[69] S. Murakami, S. Kurihara, N. Koikawa, A. Nakamura, K. Aoki, H. Yosigi, K. Sawaki, M. Ohtani, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73 (2009) 817–821.
[70] S. Murakami, S. Kurihara, C.A. Titchenal, M. Ohtani, J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 7 (2010) 23.
[71] S. Kurihara, S. Shibahara, H. Arisaka, Y. Akiyama, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 69 (2007) 1263–1270.
[72] S. Kurihara, T. Shibakusa, K.A. Tanaka, Springerplus 2 (2013) 635.
[73] S. Kurihara, T. Hiraoka, M. Akutsu, E. Sukegawa, M. Bannai, S. Shibahara, J. Amino Acids 2010 (2010) 307475.
[74] H.-J. Liu, L. Wang, L. Kang, J. Du, S. Li, H.-X. Cui, Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 51 (2018) 528–542.
[75] E.S. Son, J.-W. Park, Y.J. Kim, S.H. Jeong, J.H. Hong, S.-H. Kim, S.Y. Kyung, Toxicol. In Vitro 67 (2020) 104883.
[76] A. Langston-Cox, D. Anderson, D.J. Creek, K. Palmer, E.M. Wallace, S.A. Marshall, Molecules 25 (2020).
[77] M.D. Borges-Santos, F. Moreto, P.C.M. Pereira, Y. Ming-Yu, R.C. Burini, Nutrition 28 (2012) 753–756.
[78] S. Xie, L. Tian, J. Niu, G. Liang, Y. Liu, Fish Physiol. Biochem. 43 (2017) 1011–1020.